The Glossary

Parts of a Gothic Lancet:

  • Apse: A semi-circular or polygonal end to the chancel, usually vaulted or dome-roofed.
  • Baptistry: The area of the church where the sacrament of baptism is administered.
  • Chancel: Area of a church containing the choir and sanctuary.
  • Cruciform: Cross-shaped.
  • Cross-pattée: type of cross with arms narrow at the center and flared in a curve to form sheltering wings that symbolize the protective power of the cross.
  • Font: A receptacle for the holy water used in baptism. Trinity's font has eight sides. St. Augustine and St. Ambrose both said that the eight sides indicate eternity. After creating the world in seven days, he began creating again on the eighth day, a Sunday. Eight people from Noah’s Ark repopulated the world, circumcision brings Jewish boys into covenant on the eighth day, and Christ rose on the eighth day (Sunday), so through Baptism, we are given new life in Christ.
  • Gothic: A style of church architecture in Western Europe characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and flying buttresses.
  • Hammerbeam roof: A decorative, open timber-framed roof truss typical of English Gothic architecture.  Short beams, called “hammerbeams,” project from the wall on which the rafters land resemble long tie beams with the center removed.
  • Lancet: A tall, narrow, pointed window.
  • Nimbus: a luminous emanation, a cloud-like atmosphere believed to envelop a deity or holy person. In stained glass windows this is used about the head of the deity or holy person to show the figure is more than just a person.
  • Oculus: a circular or oval window.
  • Quatrefoil: a conventionalized representation of a flower with four petals or of a leaf with four leaflets
  • Sacristy: A room in the church where sacred vessels and vestments are kept.
  • Saddle bar: A metal bar attached to the inside of a stained glass panel and secured to the window jambs to prevent bulging or sagging. The windows below the saddle bars at Trinity were hinged at one point to allow the windows below them to open for ventilation.
  • Tracery light: Small portion of glass, often triangular in shape, between or above the heads of two lancets.
  • Transept: The large and lofty structure that lies at right angles to the nave and aisles of the church.
  • Triradiate nimbus: a halo with three rays, indicating divinity and worn by members of the Trinity and saints.



Bradner, John. Symbols of Church Seasons & Days. Witton, Connecticut:  Morehous-Barlow Co., Inc., 1977.

Griffith, Helen Stuart.The Sign Language of Our Faith. Baltimore: Thomsen-Ellis-Hutton Co., 1939.

Hempley, Sara Justice.The Windows of Trinity Episcopal Cathedral. Columbia, South Carolina: Trinity Episcopal Cathedral, 1999.

Krueger, Barbara. “Belcher Mosaic Stained Glass.” Stained Glass Quarterly 89,1 (Spring 1994) 20-30.

Mears, Henrietta C. What the Bible is All About. Ventura, California: Regal Books, 1966.

The Reader's Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary, Pleasantville, New York: The Readers' Digest  Association, Inc. 1975.

Rest, Friedrich. Our Christian Symbols, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Christian Education Press, 1954.

Trinity Church, 1937:One Hundred Twenty-fifth Anniversary. Columbia, SC.:The State Company, 1937.

Trinity Episcopal Cathedral Memorials Book  (Memorials taken from this book have been corrected when necessary.)

Waggoner, Shawn. “Crosby Willet and Willet Stained Glass Studios:Three Generations of Glass for the Ages.”Glass Art (Jan.-Feb. 2003) 55.

Whittemore, Carroll E. Symbols of the Church, Nashville:Abingdon, 1959.

Wilson, H. Weber. Great Glass in American Architecture:Decorative Windows and Doors before 1920 New York: Dutton, 1986.


Bayliss, John Hocking, “Jewels of Light.” Washington, D.C.:The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Mount Saint Alban, 1975.

Doborganes, Mary S. “The Stained Glass Windows of the Cathedral Church of St. Peter,” St. Petersburg, Fla.:Pinch Penny Press, 1989.

Hart, Georgia Herbert.“Trinity Cathedral: A Thoughtful Study and Pocket Guide,” Columbia, S. C.  1978.  

Miller, Marie and Sara Hempley, “Our History in Stone,” Trinity Cathedral, Columbia, S.C. 1988.

Montgomery, Nancy S. and Marcia P. Johnson, eds. “Jewels of Light.” Washington, D.C.:The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Mount Saint Alban, 1984.

Morris, J. Kenneth, “The Windows of St. John's Episcopal Church,” Columbia, S.C.: Kohn Printing  Company, 1972.

Thomas, Charles E. “Know Your Church,” Christ Church (Episcopal), Greenville, S.C. 1968

"The Cathedral Church of Saint John The Divine New York City,” Charlotte, N.C.:Harrison Conroy Co., n.d.

"The Memorial Windows of the Church of the Holy Trinity,” Jackson, Miss.:Premier Printing Company, 1991.

"The Tidings of Trinity Cathedral,” 1962-1981.

"The Trinity Herald,” Communications Committee of Trinity Cathedral Parish, Columbia, S.C., July, 1990; October, 1990; December, 1994.



"Stained Glass Windows to be Dedicated Today,”The State Newspaper, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1960.

Powell, Jenkyn: Internet Correspondence, 4 August 1997.

Training papers written for docents for the Trinity Tours Program (1976-1978): 

            "Trinity Cathedral History,” Walter B. Edgar.

            "Trinity Cathedral Parish,” A. T. Graydon.

            "Trinity Cathedral Building,” A. T. Graydon.

            "Trinity Episcopal Cathedral,” A. T. Graydon.

            "Interiors of the Cathedral,” Henry Lumpkin.

            "Description of the Great West Window,” Willet Stained Glass Studios.

            "Chapel Windows,” Sherri Stoppleworth.

            "Description of the Motherhood Window, the Mary and Martha Window, and the

Saint Stephen Window,” Willet Stained Glass Studios.



1956:22 September and 22 October.



1956:  16 February, 12 September, 10 October, 22 October, 14 November, and 12 December.

1957:  13 February, 13 March, 25 May, 22 June, 15 August, 11 September, and 20 October.

1958:  12 February and 27 April.

1960:  14 September and 6 October.

1962:  10 June.

1968:  7 July.

1969: 30 March.